However, remote access to EBSCO's databases from non-subscribing institutions is not allowed if the purpose of the use is for commercial gain through cost reduction or avoidance for a non-subscribing institution. The influence of gender role identity on dating behaviors of college students was examined using the Bem Sex Role Inventory and a behavioral questionnaire constructed by the author.
One hundred and ninety-seven students were classified as androgynous, undifferientated, feminine, or masculine based on their Bern Sex Role Inventory scores. A behavioral questionnaire was used to generate two self-report behavioral indexes: A higher score indicated more sexual assertiveness. In order to analyze demographic and marital data, descriptive statistics including frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations were used. Also, a one-way ANOVA test was used for the comparison of sexual assertiveness scores in gender role types.
The significance level was considered less than 0. It should be mentioned that prior to the study, an approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences code: The purpose of the study was explained to every participant verbally. Moreover, a written and oral informed consent to participate in this study was obtained from each participant who agreed to complete the tools and attend the sessions.
There were a total of participants who completed the survey. The mean age of women and their spouses was Also, the mean duration of marriage was 6. And the mean scores of marital and Sexual function satisfaction were also 4. Table 1 reveals the demographic characteristics of subjects. Additionally, descriptive statistics showed that the mean scores of gender femininity and masculinity were 5. Findings also showed that 51 The Correlation Matrix of background characteristics, gender role and sexual assertiveness. Linear Regression Analysis was performed in two stages.
Relationship between Gender Roles and Sexual Assertiveness in Married Women
However, the other four predictor variables did not contribute significantly to the prediction of Sexual assertiveness of the women. In the second model, Femininity and masculinity scores were entered. But these two variables did not contribute significantly in the model.
Linear Regression Analysis predicting Sexual assertiveness with femininity and masculinity scores and covariates. In addition, One-way ANOVA was used to investigate the difference of sexual assertiveness between gender-role type groups. This study intended to determine the relationship of gender role with sexual assertiveness in married women in Mashhad.
The mean score of sexual assertiveness in this study was higher than that reported in another study into married educated women in Northern Iran, and two other studies into married women in Tehran. This may be due to the difference in participants. Although all subjects in study of Chestnut Hill College were heterosexual women aged 18 years and above with only one sexual partner at the time of study, the majority of them were in a non-married, non-cohabitating relationship.
In fact, this finding may reflect the dominant culture in the US, in which women are encouraged to express their sexual needs and assure that their sexual needs are met. In the field of sexual interactions, culture has several impacts on thoughts, beliefs, and actions of both genders. On the other hand, results of this study did not show any significant relationship between gender roles and sexual assertiveness. In other words, it seems that sexual assertiveness in women is not affected by their gender roles. In fact, since the dominant cultures in Iran and other traditional communities assume more passive roles for women in sexual relationship, they have low sexual assertiveness regardless of their dominant gender personality.
In addition, sexual identity was incapable of predicting sexual assertiveness in such women. Yet, these findings contradict those of other studies proving that feminine role makes them passive in sexual and romantic relations. This difference may be due to different characteristics of participants.
For example, in a previous study, the research sample included international bachelor students from Asia, Africa, America, Latin America, and Arabian countries at a Midwestern university. These findings may imply that in marital relationships, there are other variables with greater impact on sexual assertiveness.
According to the findings of this study, marital duration has an inverse negative correlation with sexual assertiveness in women. In contrast to the findings of this study, Auslander did not find any significant correlation between the duration of relationship and sexual assertiveness. This, however, can be attributed to the subjects young girls with mean age of Similar to the findings of this study, Auslander did not find any significant correlation between body image of women and their demand for initiation or refusal of unwanted sexual relationship.
Results of another study also showed that women who have greater satisfaction with sexual relationship and performance tend more to initiate a sexual activity. The sense of satisfaction with sexual relationship may lead to a commitment that is a better predictor of sexual assertiveness as compared to gender attitudes. Yet, the variables investigated in this study were only capable of predicting a quarter of the variance of sexual assertiveness in women. It means that the majority of the score of this index can be explained by uninvestigated variables.
In conclusion, further studies are required for the rejection or confirmation of these results as well as for the identification of other factors affecting sexual assertiveness in Iranian women.
Gender role identity and dating behavior: What is the relationship?
Despite these findings, the present study suffered from a number of limitations. First, its cross-sectional design inhibited the realization of causal relationships. In addition, the application of self-report practice for presenting sexual information was another limitation of this study, as this practice does not allow the subjects to express their attitudes, values, and beliefs; so, future studies should include other forms of assessment.
Third, participants were drawn from a small area with a specific culture, potentially limiting generalizability. Therefore, it may be beneficial to consider the results in other populations.
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Another limitation is related to some of the instruments used in this research for measuring marital and sexual satisfaction due to the multiplicity of questionnaires. However, the validity of these instruments was confirmed. However, exploring many possible determinants and predictors of sexual assertiveness, an important component to sexual relationships and attention to the concept of sexual assertiveness in spouses are among the strengths of this study.
In general, the findings of this study support the claim that sexual assertiveness in childbearing age women does not follow gender roles, and the majority of women have low sexual assertiveness under the dominant structure of the society, regardless of their sexual identity. Lack of relationship between gender roles and sexual assertiveness in women may imply its greater dependence on other factors than gender role.
Therefore, marriage and family advisors and therapists should look for factors affecting sexual assertiveness in women as an important component of marital satisfaction. However, due to the fact that this model will be able to predict a small percentage of the sexual assertiveness variance, furthers studies are required to detect other factors effective on sexual assertiveness. The present article was extracted from the Research project and was financially supported by Mashhad University of Medical Sciences grants No Hereby, we thank the Deputy for research of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences for financial support.
Additionally the researchers would like to express their gratitude to all the participants who were involved in this study and staff of Mashhad Health Centers. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. Sex-role androgyny is also said to have other beneficial consequences such as high self esteem.
The content of these instruments, however, is largely confined to socially desirable instrumental masculine and expressive feminine personality traits.
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A review of the literature indicates that these abstract trait dimensions have only minimal relationships with sex-role attitudes and sex-role behaviors not tapping instrumentality and expressiveness, and provide little support for the general behavioral flexibility hypothesis. Although PAQ and BSRI findings cannot be generalized to sex-role behaviors in general, the literature suggests that instrumentality and expressiveness per se have important implications. Appreciation of their contributions may be advanced more rapidly if these trait dimensions are disentangled from global concepts of sex-roles or masculinity, femininity, and androgyny.
Multivariate analysis of new sex role formulations and personality. Investigated the relationship of new sex role formulations, specifically S. Regression analysis suggested that the BSRI Masculine scale was convergent with personality dimensions characterized as masculine. Discriminant analysis suggested that androgynous and masculine-typed Ss shared similar personality dimensions in opposition to feminine and undifferentiated Ss. These results did not fully support Bem's hypothesis of sex roles; however, evidence emerged indicating that masculinity and femininity, as traits, may be qualitatively different phenomena.
The implications for trait behavioral measurement are discussed. All results were cross-validated with a 2nd sample of 88 males and 93 females. Investigated the extent to which sex role descriptions based on the conception of masculinity and femininity as independent dimensions are related to bipolar conceptions and measures of masculinity—femininity.
The CPI Fe scores differentiated feminine-typed from masculine-typed Ss of both sexes and feminine-typed from androgynous females. Mean Mf and Fe scores of androgynous and undifferentiated Ss were consistently intermediate in magnitude and fell between the scores of sex-typed individuals. A structural equation analysis. Confirmatory maximum likelihood estimation of linear structural equation models with latent variables was employed to evaluate the causal predominance of attitudes over behaviors.
Two wave, 2 variable 2W2V crosslagged structural models were developed using attitude and behavior panel data from college students on studying, exercise, and dating. Additional causal factors that have been shown to have predictive utility in the context of attitude and behavior models were added to the 2W2V models to determine the impact of the specification of other relevant factors on the cross-lag parameter estimates.
Although attitudes consistently had a significant direct effort on subsequent behavior in the 2W2V models, this pattern did not hold in the expanded models. Results suggest that the specification of added factors clarifies the direct as well as indirect impact of attitudes on behavior for varying content domains and enables a more complete assessment of the generality of the nature of attitude—behavior relations. Gender schema theory and self-schema theory compared: Notes that the present author's see record gender schema theory proposes that sex-typed individuals are schematic with respect to gender masculinity and femininity , while the self-schema theory of H.
Markus et al see record proposes that sex-typed individuals are schematic with respect to either masculinity or femininity, but not both. It is maintained, however, that the 2 theories do not share a common conceptual definition of what it means to be schematic and, therefore, are not in direct opposition.
Sex role identity, peer evaluation of competition, and the responses of women and men in a competitive situation.
Gender role identity and dating behavior: What is the relationship?
Sex-role identity was measured using the Personal Attributes Questionnaire. Results reveal effects of sex-role identity and interactions of sex and peer evaluation of competition on performance and related variables. Masculine and androgynous groups had higher expectancies for performance than feminine groups, better objective performance, and greater perceived success than feminine or undifferentiated Ss of either sex.
Men and women in the masculine and androgynous groups did not differ from each other in performance, affect, or cognitions. The interactions of sex and peer evaluation of competition revealed that women responded more positively on all measures to approval than disapproval, whereas men's responses were largely unaffected. One Consequence of Psychological Androgyny. Hypothesized that psychologically "androgynous" individuals as measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory might be more likely than either masculine or feminine individuals to display sex role adaptability across situations, engaging in situationally effective behavior without regard for its stereotype as more appropriate for one sex or the other.
Androgynous Ss of both sexes displayed "masculine" independence when under pressure to conform, and "feminine" playfullness when given the opportunity to interact with a tiny kitten. In contrast, all of the nonandrogynous Ss displayed behavioral deficits of one sort of another, with the feminine females showing perhaps the greatest deficit of all. Relationship between sex role attitudes and personality traits and the Sex Role Behavior Scale The relationship of the SRBS-1 to measures of sex role attitudes and personality traits is also examined.
An initial pool of items describing recreational activities, vocational interests, social and dating behaviors, and marital behaviors thought to be more typical of one sex than the other was administered to college men and women.